Can anyone give me the pdf of The Physical Universe by Frank Shu? Where can I get a free and good PDF on nuclear physics? Where can I get a free PDF of Astronomy: A Physical Perspective by Marc L. Kutner?. The Physical Universe - An Introduction to Astronomy - F. Shu () WW - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. PDF | On Jan 31, , F. H. Shu and others published Book-Review - the Physical Universe - an Introduction to Astronomy.
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Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching in the Physical Sciences (), Pedersen, Early Physics and Astronomy: A Historical Introduction. Physics Bulletin. BOOK REVIEWS. The Physical Universe: An Introduction to. Astronomy. To cite this article: M G Smith Phys. Bull. 34 View the article. The physical universe by Frank H. Shu, , University Science an introduction to astronomy Series: A Series of books in astronomy.
This led to the emergence of the first astronomical observatories in the Muslim world by the early 9th century. Persian astrologer Albumasar 's practical manuals for training astrologers profoundly influenced Muslim intellectual history and, through translations, that of western Europe and Byzantium.
Among the Church's motives was finding the date for Easter. An astronomical chart from an early scientific manuscript, c. His work was defended by Galileo Galilei and expanded upon by Johannes Kepler.
Kepler was the first to devise a system that correctly described the details of the motion of the planets around the Sun. However, Kepler did not succeed in formulating a theory behind the laws he wrote down. Newton also developed the reflecting telescope. The English astronomer John Flamsteed catalogued over stars,  More extensive star catalogues were produced by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille.
The astronomer William Herschel made a detailed catalog of nebulosity and clusters, and in discovered the planet Uranus , the first new planet found. This work was further refined by Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Pierre Simon Laplace , allowing the masses of the planets and moons to be estimated from their perturbations.
Joseph von Fraunhofer discovered about bands in the spectrum of the Sun in —15, which, in , Gustav Kirchhoff ascribed to the presence of different elements. Stars were proven to be similar to the Earth's own Sun, but with a wide range of temperatures , masses , and sizes.
The observed recession of those galaxies led to the discovery of the expansion of the Universe.
Physical cosmology made huge advances during the 20th century. In the early s the model of the Big Bang theory was formulated, heavily evidenced by cosmic microwave background radiation , Hubble's law , and the cosmological abundances of elements. After the significant contributions of Greek scholars to the development of astronomy, it entered a relatively static era in Western Europe from the Roman era through the 12th century. This lack of progress has led some astronomers to assert that nothing happened in Western European astronomy during the Middle Ages.
The advanced astronomical treatises of classical antiquity were written in Greek , and with the decline of knowledge of that language, only simplified summaries and practical texts were available for study. The most influential writers to pass on this ancient tradition in Latin were Macrobius , Pliny , Martianus Capella , and Calcidius.
This text remained an important element of the education of clergy from the 7th century until well after the rise of the Universities in the 12th century. There they first encountered various practical astronomical techniques concerning the calendar and timekeeping, most notably those dealing with the astrolabe.
Soon scholars such as Hermann of Reichenau were writing texts in Latin on the uses and construction of the astrolabe and others, such as Walcher of Malvern , were using the astrolabe to observe the time of eclipses in order to test the validity of computistical tables. The arrival of these new texts coincided with the rise of the universities in medieval Europe, in which they soon found a home. However, he concluded "everyone maintains, and I think myself, that the heavens do move and not the earth: For God hath established the world which shall not be moved.
See also: Astronomia nova and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae During the renaissance period, astronomy began to undergo a revolution in thought known as the Copernican revolution , which gets the name from the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus , who proposed a heliocentric system, in which the planets revolved around the Sun and not the Earth.
His De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium was published in Other figures also aided this new model despite not believing the overall theory, like Tycho Brahe , with his well-known observations. Later he moved to Prague and continued his work. In Prague he was at work on the Rudolphine Tables , that were not finished until after his death. Kepler was, however, the first to attempt to derive mathematical predictions of celestial motions from assumed physical causes.
He discovered the three Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion that now carry his name, those laws being as follows: The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. The first two were published in Kepler's contributions improved upon the overall system, giving it more credibility because it adequately explained events and could cause more reliable predictions.
Before this the Copernican model was just as unreliable as the Ptolemaic model. This improvement came because Kepler realized the orbits were not perfect circles, but ellipses.
Galileo Galilei — crafted his own telescope and discovered that the Moon had craters, that Jupiter had moons, that the Sun had spots, and that Venus had phases like the Moon. Portrait by Justus Sustermans. Galileo Galilei was among the first to use a telescope to observe the sky, and after constructing a 20x refractor telescope.